Brunanburh: Unveiling the Forgotten Battlefield

Never Greater Slaughter Brunanburh and the Birth of England by Michael Livingston
Never Greater Slaughter Brunanburh and the Birth of England by Michael Livingston
Audiobook Never Greater Slaughter: Brunanburh and the Birth of England by Michael Livingston
Audiobook Never Greater Slaughter: Brunanburh and the Birth of England by Michael Livingston

Brunanburh: The Epic Battle

The Clash of Kings: Æthelstan vs. Olaf, Constantine II, and Owain

The year was 937, a turning point in English history, when Æthelstan, the mighty King of England, faced a formidable alliance comprising Olaf Guthfrithson, ruler of Dublin, Constantine II, the Scottish monarch, and Owain, King of Strathclyde. The Battle of Brunanburh shrouded in the mists of time, would forever shape the destiny of nations and kindle the fires of English nationalism.

Forging a Political Map: The Birth of English Nationalism

Historians like Michael Livingston argue that the bloodshed and sacrifice witnessed on the battlefield that fateful day laid the foundations of English nationalism. The men who fought and fell at Brunanburh, driven by their unwavering resolve, left an enduring legacy that still reverberates in the tapestry of modernity. Thus, the Battle of Brunanburh stands not only as a pivotal event in the annals of England but also as a defining moment for the entirety of the British Isles.

A Violated Treaty, an Unyielding King: The Prelude to Conflict

The seeds of the battle were sown in 934 when Æthelstan, unopposed, marched into Scotland, seeking retribution for the violation of a fragile peace treaty. His unchallenged invasion sent shockwaves throughout the land, alerting his enemies that only a united front could quell the indomitable spirit of the English king. Olaf, Constantine, and Owain, recognizing the threat, formed a powerful alliance, their sights set on halting Æthelstan’s inexorable advance.

The Gathering Storm: Olaf’s Voyage from Dublin

August 937 witnessed a momentous event as Olaf and his formidable army set sail from the bustling city of Dublin. Their mission: to join forces with Constantine and Owain, fortifying their ranks in a bid to deliver a crushing blow to Æthelstan’s dominion. The winds of fate carried them toward the destined battlefield, where heroes and legends would clash in an epic struggle for supremacy.

The Sword’s Edge: Carnage Unleashed upon Brunanburh

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, in its haunting verse, recounts the horrors of that fateful day. Swords clashed, blood flowed, and warriors fell in unprecedented numbers. The echoes of battle resounded across the land, leaving an indelible mark on the history of the British Isles. Never before had such devastation been witnessed since the arrival of the East Angles and Saxons on foreign shores.

Preserving Unity, Ensuring Peace: Æthelstan’s Triumph

Amidst the chaos and carnage, Æthelstan emerged victorious, his unwavering determination preserving the unity of England. Æthelweard, the esteemed historian of the time, wrote with awe, describing a land united, peace reigning supreme, and abundance flourishing. The Battle of Brunanburh hailed as the greatest single conflict in Anglo-Saxon history before the fateful Battle of Hastings, etched its name into the annals of time.

Lost in Time: The Enigma of Brunanburh’s Location

Despite its monumental significance, the precise location of the Battle of Brunanburh remains an enigma. Scholars and historians have tirelessly sought to unveil its secrets, proposing numerous possible sites throughout the years. Yet, the elusive battlefield, a testament to the passage of time, remains concealed, its secrets waiting to be unearthed by the intrepid explorers of history.

Æthelstan's Triumph and the Gathering Storm

A portrait of Æthelstan presenting a book to Saint Cuthbert

A portrait of Æthelstan presenting a book to Saint Cuthbert

The Aftermath of York

After Æthelstan’s resounding victory over the Vikings at York in 927, a period of relative peace settled upon the land. The defeated leaders, including King Constantine of Scotland, King Hywel Dda of Deheubarth, Ealdred I of Bamburgh, and King Owen I of Strathclyde, gathered at Eamont near Penrith to accept Æthelstan’s overlordship, forging a fragile unity under his rule.

The Storm Breaks

In the year 934, the winds of conflict stirred once more as Æthelstan mustered a formidable military and naval force to invade Scotland. The reasons behind this audacious move remain shrouded in uncertainty, though some sources attribute it to Constantine’s perceived violation of the peace treaty established in 927. With Beverley, Ripon, and Chester-le-Street marking their path, Æthelstan’s forces unleashed a relentless campaign, harrying the Scots as they advanced into Kincardineshire and Caithness.

Enemies United

The invasion of Scotland revealed that Æthelstan’s might could only be challenged by a coalition of his adversaries. At the helm of this formidable alliance stood Olaf Guthfrithson, King of Dublin, accompanied by Constantine II, King of Scotland, and Owen, King of Strathclyde. Remarkably, these once bitter rivals set aside their differences to unite against a common foe—Æthelstan himself. A remarkable convergence of political, cultural, historical, and religious circumstances paved the way for their audacious plan.

The March to Destiny

In August 937, Olaf embarked from Dublin with his army, sailing towards England to rendezvous with Constantine and Owen. This crucial moment, as Michael Livingston contends, indicates that the Battle of Brunanburh likely unfolded in early October of the same year. As Æthelstan journeyed north, he rallied Saxon troops from Mercia, strengthening his forces for the impending clash. While accounts differ regarding the extent of Mercian involvement, the stage was set for a monumental confrontation.

Paths of Conflict

Debates surround the precise route taken by the coalition army, but it is widely believed that Constantine and Owen advanced from the north, potentially skirmishing with Æthelstan’s forces as they traversed the Lancashire plains. Michael Livingston speculates that Olaf’s forces joined their allies en route, coming together in a strategic alliance. In contrast, arguments against a Western passage propose the utilization of the Stainmore Pass or Dere Street, historically favored by Scottish armies crossing into England. The selection of Brunanburh as the battle site itself, according to Livingston, may have been a carefully deliberated agreement between Æthelstan and the coalition leaders, for on that field, one momentous clash would decide the fate of England.

Æthelstan's Resounding Triumph and the Poetic Chronicle

A Decisive Victory for Æthelstan

In an overwhelming display of military prowess, Æthelstan’s army achieved a resounding triumph on the battleground of Brunanburh. The primary source documenting this historic clash is the poetic masterpiece, the Battle of Brunanburh, preserved in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.

The Confrontation at Brunanburh

Marching northwards through Mercia, Æthelstan’s forces encountered the invading armies at Brunanburh, setting the stage for an epic showdown. Engaged in a grueling day-long conflict, the English relentlessly pressed their adversaries, ultimately shattering their ranks and forcing them into disarray. The poem suggests that before the invaders were ultimately defeated, a prolonged period of arduous combat ensued.

The Chaos Unleashed, the Toll Exact

According to vivid accounts from the Battle of Brunanburh, the English valiantly cleaved through shield walls, leaving war lime hacked by hammers in their wake. The toll of the battle was immense, with fallen soldiers from the north and wearied Scottish fighters strewn across the field.

Pursuit and Escape

Æthelstan and his valiant troops pursued the retreating invaders until the day’s end, inflicting heavy casualties upon them. Olaf, realizing the gravity of the situation, fled and sailed back to Dublin with the remnants of his army, while Constantine managed to escape to Scotland. The fate of Owain remains unrecorded.

An Elegy of Bloodshed and Return

As the poem poignantly reveals, the surviving Norsemen, dispirited and stained with blood, retreated to Ding’s Mere and embarked upon nailed boats, seeking refuge in Dublin and their homeland once more. The magnitude of the slaughter at Brunanburh was unparalleled, akin to the arrival of the Angles and Saxons who had seized the land long ago.

Lamentations and Loss

The Annals of Ulster paints a vivid picture of the Battle of Brunanburh, describing it as a “great, lamentable and horrible” event, with several thousand Norsemen perishing on the battlefield. Among the fallen were five kings and seven earls from Olaf’s army. The poem mournfully recounts Constantine’s personal tragedy, as he lost not only friends but also his own son.

Names Enshrined in Tragedy

The Annals of Clonmacnoise provide a vast register of the fallen, documenting the names of numerous kings and princes who met their fate at Brunanburh. Tragically, a considerable number of English soldiers also lost their lives, including Æthelstan’s cousins, Ælfwine and Æthelwine. The cost of victory was steep indeed.

The Tale Echoed in Medieval Texts

The Battle of Brunanburh, a historic clash that seeped in myth and legend, has left its indelible mark on numerous medieval texts. Let us journey through the annals of history and explore the diverse accounts surrounding this epic conflict.

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: Battle of Brunanburh – A Poetic Chronicle

Within the Old English poem “Battle of Brunanburh” in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (version A), we find one of the earliest and most informative sources about the battle. Written within two decades of the event, the poem vividly recounts the engagement between Æthelstan and Edmund’s army of West Saxons and Mercians against the Vikings led by Anlaf (also known as Olaf Guthfrithson) and the Scots under Constantine. It paints a picture of a fierce battle that raged throughout the day, resulting in the death of five young kings, seven of Anlaf’s earls, and countless others. The slaughter at Brunanburh was described as the greatest since the Anglo-Saxon invasions, marking a significant turning point in history.

Irish Annals of Ulster: Brunanburh’s Lamentable and Horrible War
Manuscript of the Annals of Ulster 500–1000 AD

Manuscript of the Annals of Ulster 500–1000 AD

The Irish Annals of Ulster describe the Battle of Brunanburh as a “huge war, lamentable and horrible.” It acknowledges Anlaf’s return to Dublin the following year with a few men, a moment associated with a spring event. The annals emphasize the magnitude of the conflict and its profound impact on those involved.

Annales Cambriae: A Brief Note on “War at Brune”

In its only entry for 937, the mid/late 10th-century Welsh chronicle Annales Cambriae simply states “war at Brune.” While brief, this reference highlights the awareness of a significant conflict occurring at Brunanburh.

Æthelweard’s Chronicon: The Great War at Brunandune

Æthelweard’s Chronicon, written around 980, informs us that the battle at “Brunandune” remained known as “the great war” even at that time. It highlights the enduring impact of Brunanburh, emphasizing its significance in the collective memory of the people. The chronicle also notes that no enemy fleet had attacked the country since the battle, underscoring its deterrent effect.

Eadmer of Canterbury’s Vita Odonis: Oda of Canterbury’s Miraculous Intervention

Eadmer of Canterbury’s Vita Odonis, from the very late 11th century, is one of several medieval sources recounting Oda of Canterbury’s involvement in a miraculous restitution of Æthelstan’s sword during the height of the Battle of Brunanburh. This account adds a touch of divine intervention to the conflict, further enhancing its mythical aura.

William Ketel’s De Miraculis Sancti Joannis Beverlacensis: Æthelstan’s Sacred Pilgrimage

In William Ketel’s De Miraculis Sancti Joannis Beverlacensis, an early 12th-century text, we learn that Æthelstan, on his way north to fight the Scots at Brunanburh, left his army to visit the tomb of Bishop John at Beverley. He sought the bishop’s intercession through prayers for the forthcoming battle. Following his victory, Æthelstan expressed his gratitude by granting certain privileges and rights to the church at Beverley.

These various accounts provide glimpses into different aspects of the Battle of Brunanburh, from the strategic maneuvers and alliances to the miracles and rituals associated with the conflict. Each narrative adds depth and richness to our understanding of this historical event, ensuring that Brunanburh remains etched in the annals of time.

The Aftermath

Scotland and Strathclyde: The Unyielding Independent Kingdoms

Amidst the tumultuous 10th century, Æthelstan’s victory at Brunanbruh stands as a pivotal moment in English history. However, its reach fell short of encompassing the entire island. Despite Æthelstan’s military prowess, Scotland and Strathclyde remained resolute in their quest for independence. These resilient kingdoms stood as a testament to the enduring spirit of their people, refusing to succumb to English domination.

Foot’s Cautionary Insight: Assessing the True Significance

In the annals of history, as historian Michael Foot astutely notes, the temptation to exaggerate the importance of Brunanbruh is a constant challenge. While Æthelstan’s victory undoubtedly preserved the unity of England, its impact on a broader scale is a matter of contention. Foot’s cautionary stance urges us to critically evaluate the battle’s true significance amidst the grand tapestry of historical events.

Livingston’s Proclamation: The Birth of Englishness

Contrasting perspectives shed light on the magnitude of Brunanbruh. For William Livingston, the battle marks a defining moment in the emergence of Englishness. It signifies the coming of age for the English people, a realization of their distinct identity and destiny. Beyond England’s borders, Livingston contends that Brunanbruh holds immense significance for the entire British Isles, cementing its place as one of the most consequential battles in their shared history.

Smyth’s Comparative Perspective: Revisiting its Place in History

Alfred Smyth offers a tempered analysis, recognizing Brunanbruh as the greatest single battle in Anglo-Saxon history prior to the epochal Battle of Hastings. However, Smyth cautions against overstating its lasting consequences beyond Æthelstan’s reign. By drawing comparisons and contextualizing its impact, Smyth invites a nuanced reassessment of Brunanbruh’s position within the broader historical narrative.

Woolf’s Pyrrhic Interpretation: Æthelstan’s Costly Victory

In his evocative portrayal, historian Alex Woolf characterizes Brunanbruh as a pyrrhic victory for Æthelstan. Though the battle prevented immediate dissolution, the campaign against the northern alliance ultimately led to a stalemate. Æthelstan’s control over the north waned, and upon his death, Olaf seamlessly ascended to the Kingdom of Northumbria without facing resistance. Woolf’s perspective reminds us of the delicate balance between triumph and loss in the aftermath of Brunanbruh.

Eric Bloodaxe’s Demise: A Turning Point in Norse Control

Within the intricate tapestry of Norse influence, the demise of Eric Bloodaxe in 954 marked a significant shift in power. The loss of York and Northumbria dealt a blow to Norse territorial control. This event, occurring after Brunanbruh, further reshaped the landscape of northern England, altering the trajectory of future events and opening doors for new possibilities.

The Bitter Reality: Æthelstan’s Failed Island Unification

Despite Æthelstan’s ambitious vision to unite the entire island, the dream of a unified Great Britain remained elusive. Brunanbruh, while a resounding triumph for Æthelstan, did not secure lasting control over Scotland and Strathclyde. The reverberations of this unfulfilled ambition reverberated for centuries to come, leaving a lasting division between the Celtic north and the Anglo-Saxon south.

The Legacy of Division: Centuries of Celtic North and Anglo-Saxon South

Brunanbruh’s aftermath left an indelible mark on the history of Great Britain. The division between the Celtic north and the Anglo-Saxon south endured, shaping the political, cultural, and linguistic landscapes of these regions. The echoes of this ancient clash reverberated through time, laying the foundation for enduring identities and conflicts that would shape the destiny of the British Isles.

Æthelweard’s Testimony: The ‘Great Battle’ Echoes in the Common Folk

Æthelweard, writing in the late 900s, provides a glimpse into the popular perception of Brunanbruh. According to his accounts, the battle retained its resonance among the common people. Even generations after the event, it continued to be referred to as the ‘great battle,’ symbolizing a collective memory of valor and sacrifice. In Æthelweard’s words, the aftermath of Brunanbruh brought peace and abundance to the fields of Britain, signifying a fleeting moment of tranquility in a turbulent era.

Consolidation and Abundance: Brief Moments of Peace in the Fields of Britain

While the dream of unity eluded Æthelstan, Brunanbruh’s impact on the immediate landscape cannot be overlooked. Æthelweard’s testimony highlights a momentary consolidation of the fields of Britain, as peace and abundance reigned briefly in the aftermath of the battle. These cherished moments of respite served as a testament to the enduring human spirit, striving for harmony amidst the tumultuous tides of history.

The Search for the Battle of Brunanburh

Old map of the Wirral showing ‘Brunburgh’ and Thingwall

Old map of the Wirral showing ‘Brunburgh’ and Thingwall

For centuries, the monumental clash known as “the Great Battle” has held the key to England’s very existence. But as time passed, the location of Brunanburh slipped into the realms of mystery and speculation, lost to the annals of history. Now, however, the tides of fate have shifted, as acclaimed author Bernard Cornwell boldly declares, “The search for Brunanburh is over.”

Wirral Archaeology, driven by an increasing surge of public curiosity, has taken up the mantle in a grand endeavor named “The Search for the Battle of Brunanburh.” A beacon of hope amidst the veils of uncertainty, this project has ignited the flames of anticipation among enthusiasts far and wide.

Lost to the sands of time, the battle’s true whereabouts have spurred numerous claims, scattering the battlefield across the diverse landscapes of England and Scotland. Yet, with unwavering determination, Wirral Archaeology has meticulously undertaken years of planned search activities, each step unraveling the compelling hypothesis that the Battle of Brunanburh, fought in the annals of 937 AD, may have transpired on the hallowed grounds of Wirral.

Through rigorous research of medieval manuscripts, meticulous study of later records and publications, and comprehensive landscape surveys utilizing cutting-edge techniques like LiDAR, geophysics, metal detecting, and targeted excavations, Wirral Archaeology has amassed a trove of invaluable information. Alongside this wealth of knowledge, a treasure trove of relevant artifacts, potentially signaling the existence of an early medieval battleground, has been unearthed, meticulously cataloged, and now awaits meticulous examination.

A turning point in this epic journey unfolded recently, as Wirral Archaeology orchestrated a momentous gathering. The day-long “mini-conference” witnessed the convergence of illustrious international medieval historians and archaeologists, including the esteemed Professor Michael Livingston, a distinguished authority on the Battle of Brunanburh. Their collective purpose: to showcase the amassed information, unveil the discovered artifacts, and delve deep into their significance. Among the esteemed attendees were renowned experts in ancient battlefield identification, lending weight to the proceedings.

The outcome of this historic assembly was nothing short of unanimous consensus. The assembled experts, their wisdom harnessed from years of scholarly pursuit, concluded with resounding certainty that Wirral Archaeology had pieced together a vast mosaic of corroborating evidence. The recovered early medieval battle artifacts stood as a testament to a revelation that Brunanburh’s elusive site might finally have been unveiled within the ancient bounds of Wirral.

As the quest for truth deepens, the need for confidentiality grows paramount to ensure the site’s security. However, this crucial juncture marks merely a stepping stone on the path to enlightenment. Wirral Archaeology, recognizing the continued necessity for detailed research, now turns to the National Lottery Heritage Fund, preparing a funding bid to support further investigations. Yet, the success of this endeavor relies upon the unwavering support of the public.

Embracing the weight of responsibility, on the 13th of October, Professor Michael Livingston graced the digital pages of with an initial article, sharing glimpses of Wirral Archaeology’s research progress. With each passing day, their collaboration with eminent historians and scientists deepens, intensifying the validation process for the discovered artifacts and other invaluable pieces of the puzzle. This ongoing endeavor, expanding in scope, shall endure for years to come.

Speaking on behalf of Wirral Archaeology, a spokesperson conveyed the wisdom of the esteemed scholars and academics who have examined the evidence gathered, including the physical artifacts. Their resounding conclusion resonates like an echo through time—the long-lost site of the Battle of Brunanburh might finally have been uncovered. Nevertheless, the journey ahead remains fraught with investigative endeavors, and Wirral Archaeology extends heartfelt gratitude to the assembly of professional archaeologists, medieval historians, and scientists who now stand united in their shared pursuit.

As the momentum builds, Wirral Archaeology stands poised to unveil further updates on this remarkable search. Local meetings with Wirral residents and relevant authorities have commenced, echoing the spirit of collaboration and community. With each passing day, Brunanburh’s secrets draw closer to the light, the tale of a defining moment in England’s storied history eagerly awaiting its revelation.

Poem of the Battle of Brunanburh

Embodied within the verses of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the poem of the Battle of Brunanburh stands as a testament to the valor and strife that unfolded on those hallowed grounds. Here, in this auditory journey, we present the sonorous recitation, harmonizing with a meticulously crafted English translation:

Source: Spiraculum Vitae (2017)

Featured Image

Battle of Brunanburh

The great battle of Brunanburh, 937, where the army of King Aethelstan triumphed over the combined armies of Olaf III, King of Dublin, Constantine II, King of Scots and Owen I, King of Strathclyde

In the image titled “The Great Battle of Brunanburh, 937,” we are transported to the heart of a historic conflict that shaped the destiny of nations. The scene unfolds with King Aethelstan’s army, resolute and determined, as they face off against the formidable combined forces of Olaf III, King of Dublin, Constantine II, King of Scots, and Owen I, King of Strathclyde.

The artist’s skill brings to life the intensity and chaos of the battlefield. The air is thick with tension and anticipation as armies clash, their banners fluttering defiantly in the wind. The warriors are depicted in vivid detail, their faces etched with determination and courage, poised for the decisive moment that will seal their fate.

Amidst the swirling melee, King Aethelstan stands at the forefront, a beacon of leadership and valor. His presence exudes authority and strategic prowess, inspiring his troops to fight with unwavering loyalty. The opposing kings, Olaf III, Constantine II, and Owen I, are portrayed as formidable adversaries, commanding their troops with equal resolve and fervor.

The landscape reflects the ruggedness of the battlefield, with undulating hills and rocky terrain adding to the sense of grandeur and scale. The artist’s attention to detail captures the grit and brutality of medieval warfare, with weapons clashing, shields splintering, and the ground stained with the blood of fallen warriors.

In this historical tableau, “The Great Battle of Brunanburh, 937,” the artist encapsulates the essence of a monumental clash that reverberated through time. It stands as a testament to the courage, sacrifice, and unwavering spirit of those who fought, and the profound impact their actions had on the course of history.


  • Wikipedia Contributors. (2023, May 4). Battle of Brunanburh. Wikipedia; Wikimedia Foundation.

  • The Battlefields Hub → Britons, Saxons & Vikings → The Battle of Battle of Brunanburh. (2023).

  • The search for the Battle of Brunanburh is over – The Citadel Today. (2019, November 5). The Citadel Today.

  • Battle of Brunanburh AD937 – The University of Nottingham. (2019).

  • Battle of Brunanburh 937AD. (2017). Historic UK.

  • Wikipedia Contributors. (2022, October 4). Annals of Ulster. Wikipedia; Wikimedia Foundation.

  • (2022, December 27). The Annals of Clonmacnoise –

  • Spiraculum Vitae. (2017). The Battle of Brunanburh – Spiraculum Vitae [YouTube Video]. In YouTube.

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