Byzantium

Justinian and Theodora

Justinian's reign saw political stability, ambitious expansion, and a fusion of imperial and spiritual authority.

Parable of the Workers in the Vineyard. Workers on the field (down) and pay time (up), Byzantine Gospel of 11th century.

The Empire Before Justinian: Byzantium's economy relied on advanced agriculture, a sophisticated tax system, and vast trade, with Egypt's grain vital.

Depiction of the Varangian Guard (above) in the 11th century chronicle of John Skylitzes

Varangian Guard was an elite unit of the Byzantine Army from the tenth to the fourteenth century who served as personal bodyguards to the Byzantine emperors.

Siege of Constantinople - Image from an illuminated manuscript, the Madrid Skylitzes, showing Greek fire in use against the fleet of the rebel

Siege of Constantinople in 717–718 was a combined land and sea offensive by the Umayyad Caliphate against the capital city of the Byzantine Empire.

The Siege of Constantinople in 626 by the Avars on a mural at the Moldoviţa Monastery, Romania

Byzantine Victory in 626 Siege: The failure of the siege saved the empire from collapse, enabled Byzantium to regain its territories & end Roman-Persian Wars.

The Byzantine Empire In Art - Monastery in Dafni on the outskirts of Athens

The Byzantine Empire was a powerful force in the art world, producing a vast collection of Christian Greek artwork spanning from the 4th to 15th centuries.

Byzantine's Transformation - Detail from the fresco cycle of the "Legend of the Holy Cross" in the choir of the Basilica of San Francesco in Arezzo.

Byzantine's Transformation in the Seventh Century marked a pivotal moment in its history as the empire underwent significant changes and expansion.

Emperor Iustinianus and his suite, Basilique San Vitale, Ravenna, Emilia-Romagna, Italia

Justinian the Great was born around 482 CE in Tauresium, a village in Illyria, and ruled the Byzantine Empire from 527 to 565 CE.

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