Justinian and Theodora

Justinian's reign saw political stability, ambitious expansion, and a fusion of imperial and spiritual authority.

Parable of the Workers in the Vineyard. Workers on the field (down) and pay time (up), Byzantine Gospel of 11th century.

The Empire Before Justinian: Byzantium's economy relied on advanced agriculture, a sophisticated tax system, and vast trade, with Egypt's grain vital.

Siege of Constantinople - Image from an illuminated manuscript, the Madrid Skylitzes, showing Greek fire in use against the fleet of the rebel

Siege of Constantinople in 717–718 was a combined land and sea offensive by the Umayyad Caliphate against the capital city of the Byzantine Empire.

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