Medieval Communication: The Evolution of the Messenger

Political Order and Forms of Communication in Medieval and Early Modern Europe by Yoshihisa Hattori
Political Order and Forms of Communication in Medieval and Early Modern Europe by Yoshihisa Hattori

Medieval Communication

Before the Middle Ages: Foundations of Ancient Communication

The Persian Empire’s communication network, established under Cyrus the Great, was a marvel of the ancient world. This system, involving mounted couriers traveling across a network of relay stations, was described in detail by the Greek historian Herodotus. It facilitated rapid information flow across the empire, which stretched from Asia Minor to India. Similarly, the Inca state’s ‘chasquis’ system demonstrated a highly effective non-written communication method, relying on memory and oral transmission to convey messages over vast distances.

Post-Roman Europe: Emergence of Localized Networks

After the Roman Empire’s fall, Europe saw a fragmented but dynamic evolution in communication. The decline in centralized power led to the emergence of localized networks, often operated by the church or feudal lords. This period was marked by adaptation to regional needs, reflecting the localized nature of power and influence in post-Roman Europe.

Medieval Communication Demands

The medieval era was characterized by a blend of warfare, commerce, and religion, each demanding efficient communication. The spread of Christianity, for instance, required a network capable of disseminating religious teachings and coordinating with distant churches. The church’s role in developing literacy and written communication was pivotal in this era.

The Rise of Messenger Services

Medieval towns were bustling centers of trade and commerce, necessitating efficient communication networks for economic prosperity. Merchants and town councils established these networks to exchange information about market conditions, trade routes, and commercial opportunities. These networks were vital for the governance of towns, facilitating communication between different town guilds, local authorities, and, in some cases, with the ruling nobility or monarchs. They allowed towns to respond swiftly to economic and political changes, enhancing their autonomy and influence.

The Development of Merchant Guilds

Merchant guilds played a pivotal role in developing these communication networks. These guilds, formed by merchants with common business interests, not only regulated trade but also established contacts with other towns and regions. They negotiated trade agreements, settled disputes, and sometimes even acted as diplomatic representatives for their towns in dealings with other cities or rulers.

Monastic Networks

Monasteries were the primary centers of learning and knowledge preservation in medieval Europe. They established extensive communication networks to share religious and scholarly manuscripts, theological discourses, and philosophical debates. These networks were crucial for the replication and dissemination of knowledge, as monastic scribes copied and exchanged texts, playing a key role in preserving ancient and contemporary knowledge.

Role in Spreading Christianity

Monastic networks also facilitated the spread of Christianity. Monks traveled between monasteries and to distant lands, carrying religious texts, relics, and news, thereby linking remote communities to the broader Christian world. These networks helped maintain doctrinal uniformity and played a key role in the church’s missionary activities.

Academic Networks of Universities

With the rise of universities in the 12th and 13th centuries, academic networks became increasingly important. Universities like those in Bologna, Paris, and Oxford became centers of intellectual exchange, attracting scholars from across Europe. The communication among these academic institutions was pivotal in the development of Scholasticism, a method of learning that emphasized critical thought and debate.

Exchange of Ideas and Texts

Scholars and students traveled extensively between universities, sharing ideas, texts, and academic discoveries. This movement created an intellectual network that transcended political and cultural boundaries, contributing significantly to the Renaissance and the eventual end of the medieval period. These networks were instrumental in the diffusion of new ideas, such as those of Aristotle and other classical thinkers, whose works were reintroduced to Western Europe through translations.

Papal Innovations: Strengthening the Church's Reach

The Papal Courier System

The Papal courier system, developed during the medieval era, was a testament to the Roman Catholic Church’s remarkable organizational capabilities. This system was not merely a means of communication; it was an essential tool for maintaining the church’s authority and influence across diverse and often remote regions.

Evolution and Structure

Originating from the Roman cursus publicus (the state courier system), the Church adapted and expanded this model to suit its needs. The Papal courier system comprised a network of messengers and relay stations strategically located throughout Christendom. These couriers were responsible for transporting papal decrees, diplomatic correspondence, and other religious documents. They traveled on established routes that linked monasteries, bishoprics, and important religious sites, ensuring a consistent and reliable flow of information.

Securing the Network

The safety and security of these couriers were paramount, given the often sensitive nature of the documents they carried. To this end, the Church sought and often received assurances of safe passage from local lords and rulers. Additionally, the Church imposed severe penalties on anyone who harmed or impeded its messengers, further safeguarding the system’s integrity.

Pope Gregory the Great’s Reforms

Pope Gregory I, commonly known as Gregory the Great, was instrumental in reforming the Church’s communication system in the late 6th and early 7th centuries. His reforms were part of a broader strategy to consolidate papal authority and extend the Church’s influence in a Europe fragmented by the fall of the Roman Empire.

Centralization and Efficiency

One of Gregory’s key reforms was the centralization of the courier system. He streamlined the process of dispatching and receiving messages, ensuring that communication from the Papacy was consistent and authoritative. This centralization not only enhanced the efficiency of the system but also reinforced the perception of the Papacy as a unified and powerful institution.

Diplomatic Communication

Gregory the Great also recognized the importance of effective diplomatic communication. He used the courier system to maintain regular correspondence with various political and religious leaders across Europe. This communication was not just administrative; it was also a means to influence and negotiate, furthering the Church’s interests in a complex political landscape.


The innovations and reforms introduced by Gregory the Great had a lasting impact on the church’s communication system. They laid the groundwork for the Church’s ability to exercise influence far beyond Rome, reaching into the far corners of Europe. This system played a crucial role in the Church’s administration, the spread of Christianity, and the establishment of the Papacy as a major political power during the medieval period.

Skills of Medieval Messengers

Armenian Kings in medieval European manuscripts_ Louis IX receiving Armenian envoys

Armenian Kings in medieval European manuscripts_ Louis IX receiving Armenian envoys

Diplomatic Acumen and Ingenuity

Medieval messengers were not merely conveyors of information; they were skilled in diplomacy, negotiation, and often subterfuge. Their role was crucial in an era where communication could determine the fate of kingdoms and empires.

Coded Messages of Queen Mary of Scots

Queen Mary of Scots’ use of coded messages is a remarkable example of cryptography in medieval times. During her imprisonment by Queen Elizabeth I, Mary became embroiled in what is known as the Babington Plot, a plan to assassinate Elizabeth and place Mary on the English throne. To secretly communicate with her conspirators, Mary used a cipher—a system of symbols to replace letters. Unfortunately for Mary, her messages were intercepted by Elizabeth’s spymaster, Sir Francis Walsingham. He employed expert cryptanalysts, including Thomas Phelippes, who managed to decipher the messages, leading to Mary’s execution in 1587. This episode underlines the high stakes of medieval communication and the emerging art of cryptanalysis.

John of Carpini’s Diplomatic Journey to the Mongols

Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, better known as John of Carpini, was a Franciscan friar sent by Pope Innocent IV as an envoy to the Mongol Empire. In 1245, Carpini embarked on an extraordinary journey to meet the Great Khan, traveling through Eastern Europe and Central Asia. His mission was to understand the Mongols’ intentions and to establish a form of peace with the rapidly expanding empire. Carpini’s journey, which lasted several years, was fraught with hardship, including extreme weather conditions and the constant threat of banditry. Despite these challenges, Carpini successfully reached Karakorum and met with the Mongol leaders. His detailed report on Mongol customs, military tactics, and governance, titled “Historia Mongalorum,” was one of the first comprehensive European accounts of the Mongol world and remains a valuable historical document.

Francesco Datini: The Merchant Messenger

Francesco Datini, a 14th-century merchant from Prato, Italy, played a significant role in the development of medieval commerce and communication. Datini’s extensive correspondence, preserved in the State Archive of Prato, provides a fascinating glimpse into the life of a medieval merchant. His letters and business documents illustrate the complex network of trade routes, the variety of goods traded (from textiles to spices), and the financial instruments used (like bills of exchange). Datini was not just a messenger in the traditional sense; his contribution to the economic and social fabric of the medieval world was profound. He helped lay the groundwork for modern banking and international trade, showcasing the interconnectedness of commerce, communication, and diplomacy in the medieval era.

Medieval Travel: The Choice of Pack Animals

The Ass: A Symbol of Humility

The ass, while symbolizing humility, was also a practical choice for many travelers. Its endurance and ability to navigate difficult terrain made it a reliable choice for long journeys.

The Horse: A Mark of Wealth and Speed

The horse was a status symbol in medieval society. The development of breeds like the Destrier, known for their use in warfare and jousting, highlights the importance of horses in medieval culture and communication.

The Mule: Endurance and Economy

The mule, a symbol of endurance, played a vital role in transportation and agriculture. Its ability to carry heavy loads over long distances made it an invaluable asset in medieval travel.

Evolution of Road Systems

The medieval road system, evolving from Roman models, played a crucial role in communication. Despite the decline in the quality of roads post-Roman Empire, efforts were made by local authorities and the Church to maintain and improve key routes, facilitating the movement of people and information.

Nautical Advances

Maritime communication was also crucial, particularly for coastal European regions and the Mediterranean. Advances in shipbuilding and navigation during the medieval period greatly enhanced sea-based communication and trade.

The Wider Impact of Communication on Medieval Society

Communication systems in the medieval era were instrumental in shaping political alliances, propagating religious doctrines, and facilitating cultural and technological exchanges. The growth of universities and the spread of ideas like the Renaissance can be partly attributed to these communication networks.

The establishment of regular postal routes in the later medieval period was a significant development, democratizing communication and setting the stage for the modern postal system. This period’s communication advancements reflect a society in transition, laying the groundwork for the modern world.


  • Anastasiia. (2023, September 6). Explore the Exciting Life of a Medieval Messenger.

  • Medieval, in. (2017, April 9). Communication in Medieval Times: How Messages Were Sent. Short History Website.

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