The 12th Century: The Dawn of the Renaissance

The 12th Century

Economic Power Shift to Western Europe

The 12th century marked a pivotal point in history, often regarded by scholars as the early dawn of the Renaissance. This era witnessed a substantial cultural and economic revival, setting the stage for profound changes in the centuries to follow. One of the most notable shifts was the movement of economic power from the Eastern Mediterranean to Western Europe. This transition was not abrupt but gradual, reflecting the changing dynamics of trade, politics, and cultural influence across the region. The burgeoning economies of Western European nations began to overshadow the long-standing dominance of the Eastern Mediterranean, heralding a new era in global trade and cultural exchange.

The Emergence of Gothic Style

Art and architecture saw revolutionary transformations during this period, most prominently through the emergence of the Gothic style. This style, characterized by its pointed arches, ribbed vaults, and flying buttresses, represented a departure from the Romanesque architecture that had dominated the previous era. Gothic architecture, first appearing in France, quickly spread throughout Western Europe, symbolizing the growing cultural and economic power of the region. Concurrently, advancements in art, with a focus on more naturalistic and humanistic themes, laid the groundwork for what would eventually bloom into the full splendor of the Renaissance.

Urban Development and Growth

Urban development and the growth of towns were significant features of the 12th century. With improved travel and communication, which became faster, safer, and more efficient, urban centers thrived. This period saw the rise of bustling market towns and trading centers, which became hubs of commerce and social interaction. The growth of these urban areas was a testament to the increasing complexity and interconnectedness of medieval society, paving the way for the urbanization trends that would continue in subsequent centuries.

Rise of the Merchant Class

The rise of the merchant class marked a notable societal shift in this period. Merchants, benefiting from the improved travel and trade routes, began to gain influence and wealth, challenging the traditional feudal hierarchy that had dominated Europe for centuries. This emergent class played a crucial role in the economic development of the period, fostering trade across regions and contributing to the growing dynamism of urban life. Their rise signified a gradual shift towards a more economically diverse and socially mobile society.

Agricultural Innovations and Population Growth

Agricultural innovation, particularly the cultivation of beans, had a profound impact on society. For the first time in history, a balanced diet became accessible to all social strata, thanks to the widespread cultivation of this versatile and nutritious crop. This agricultural development contributed to better overall health and a significant increase in the population. The demographic expansion that resulted from improved nutrition and living standards led to a demand for more labor, thereby contributing to the gradual breakdown of the rigid feudal systems that had structured society.

Global Developments Outside Europe

Outside of Europe, the 12th century was a time of significant developments in other parts of the world. In Islamic Spain, the Islamic Golden Age was in full swing, marked by remarkable progress in science, philosophy, the arts, and culture. This period was a testament to the rich intellectual and cultural contributions of Islamic civilization. Meanwhile, in Song Dynasty China, the incursion of the Jurchens caused a significant political divide between the north and south, reshaping the political landscape of the region. In Southeast Asia, the Khmer Empire in Cambodia experienced a period of significant growth and cultural development. In the Middle East, the Fatimid rule in Egypt was replaced by the Ayyubid dynasty, signaling a change in political and religious dynamics. And towards the end of the century, the expansions of the Ghaznavids and Ghurid Empire culminated in the Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, adding another layer to the rich tapestry of 12th-century history.


Treaty of Alton
Miniature from Matthew Paris's Historia Anglorum, c. 1253. The portrait is generic and depicts Henry holding the Church of Reading Abbey, where he was buried.

In July of the 12th century, a pivotal moment in the history of Anglo-Norman succession unfolded with the signing of the Treaty of Alton. This crucial agreement was between Henry I of England and his elder brother Robert, Duke of Normandy. Under the terms of the treaty, Robert conceded to recognize Henry as the legitimate king of England. In exchange, Henry agreed to provide Robert with a yearly stipend and other concessions, marking a significant compromise between the brothers. This treaty effectively brought a temporary resolution to the ongoing crisis that had plagued the succession of the Anglo-Norman kings, stabilizing the political landscape of the region for a brief period.

David the Builder takes over Kakheti and Hereti
David IV on 12th century icon at Saint Catherine's Monastery

David the Builder, one of Georgia's most esteemed and capable monarchs, accomplished a major strategic feat by taking over the regions of Kakheti and Hereti. This notable conquest occurred during his ambitious campaign to consolidate and expand the Kingdom of Georgia. David's military and diplomatic prowess was vividly demonstrated in this endeavor, as he successfully integrated these regions, strategically located to the east of Georgia, into his growing realm. The annexation of Kakheti and Hereti not only expanded Georgia's territorial boundaries but also played a crucial role in strengthening the kingdom's political and economic stability. Under David's rule, this expansion was a key step towards the unification of Georgia, marking a period of resurgence and cultural flourishing that would later define his legacy as a nation-builder and a key figure in Georgian history.

King Coloman unites Hungary and Croatia under the Hungarian Crown
Coloman's father Géza depicted on the lower part (Corona Graeca) of the Holy Crown of Hungary

King Coloman of Hungary achieved a significant political milestone by uniting Hungary and Croatia under the Hungarian Crown. This unification, occurring in the early 12th century, represented a major expansion of Coloman's realm and influence. By skillfully navigating the complex landscape of regional politics, Coloman managed to extend his sovereignty over Croatia, thereby not only enlarging his kingdom but also significantly enhancing its strategic position in Central Europe. This union laid the foundation for a long-lasting relationship between Hungary and Croatia, intertwining their histories and cultures. Under Coloman's rule, this amalgamation signified a period of relative stability and prosperity, contributing to the development of a more cohesive and powerful Hungarian state during a time when Europe was marked by fragmentation and feudal strife.

28 September
Battle of Tinchebray
Late medieval picture from the 15th century of the Battle of Tinchebray, by the Rohan Master

The Battle of Tinchebray, fought in September 1106, stands as a defining moment in the history of Norman England and France. This critical battle took place in Normandy, near the town of Tinchebray, and was a decisive confrontation between Henry I of England and his elder brother, Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy. The battle was the culmination of long-standing disputes over the English and Norman thrones, a conflict that had been simmering since the death of their brother, William II of England. Henry's victory at Tinchebray was significant; it not only secured his control over Normandy, but also marked the end of Robert's claim to the English throne. This victory effectively consolidated Henry's power, ensuring his dominion over both England and Normandy, and had far-reaching implications for the future of both regions, shaping the political landscape of Northern Europe for years to come.

Treaty of Devol
The siege of Antioch, from a 15th-century miniature painting

The Treaty of Devol, signed in 1108, was a significant diplomatic agreement during the Crusades, involving Bohemond I of Antioch and Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos. This treaty followed the First Crusade, where tensions between the Crusader states and the Byzantine Empire were high. Bohemond, having been captured in battle, was compelled to sign this treaty as a condition for his release. The Treaty of Devol effectively reduced the Principality of Antioch, a Crusader state, to a vassal state under Byzantine suzerainty. It stipulated that Bohemond would hold Antioch for life as the emperor's vassal and that any succession would require Byzantine approval. Although never fully implemented due to Bohemond's reluctance to fulfill its terms, the Treaty of Devol is historically significant as it highlights the complex relationships between the Crusader states and the Byzantine Empire, as well as the diplomatic efforts to manage their competing interests in the region.

24th August
Battle of Hundsfeld
Woodcut from Kronika Polska by Marcin Bielski, 1597

The Battle of Hundsfeld, fought in the 12th century, stands as a notable event in the military history of the period. This confrontation took place near the city of Wrocław in Silesia, pitting the forces of Poland, led by Bolesław IV the Curly, against the forces of the Holy Roman Empire. The battle is historically significant for its display of Polish military strength and strategic acumen. Bolesław IV, renowned for his leadership and military skills, led the Polish forces to a decisive victory, successfully repelling the imperial forces. This triumph not only asserted Polish dominance in the region but also demonstrated the nation's resilience and tactical prowess in the face of larger, formidable opponents.

14th April
Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor
Henry V depicted in a contemporary Gospel Book

Henry V was crowned Holy Roman Emperor. This momentous occasion marked a key point in the power dynamics of European politics during the medieval period. Henry V's coronation as Emperor not only solidified his position as a dominant figure in the German and Italian territories but also represented the apex of his political career. His reign as Emperor was characterized by a complex interplay of power struggles, notably with the Papacy, reflecting the ongoing conflicts between secular and religious authorities in the medieval period.

The Knights Templar are founded to protect Christian pilgrims in Jerusalem
The Knights Templar

In 1119, a pivotal organization was established with a mission that would significantly impact the course of medieval history: the Knights Templar. This military order, founded in the wake of the First Crusade, was primarily dedicated to protecting Christian pilgrims journeying to the sacred city of Jerusalem. The Templars, recognized by their distinctive white mantles adorned with a red cross, quickly grew in prominence and influence. Their founding symbolized a fusion of monastic life and the chivalric code of the warrior, creating an order of monk-knights that was unprecedented at the time. Initially a small group, the Knights Templar gained papal endorsement and evolved into one of the most skilled and feared military orders in Christendom. Their role extended beyond mere protection of pilgrims, as they became instrumental in broader military campaigns in the Holy Land, banking, and even political matters, leaving a lasting legacy in both religious and secular spheres.

Council of Nablus
the Council of Nablus, depicting King Baldwin II and Patriarch Warmund of Jerusalem presiding over a significant assembly.

The Council of Nablus, convened in January 1120, was a landmark event in the history of the Crusader States in the Middle East. This council was held in the Kingdom of Jerusalem, a crusader state established after the First Crusade, and was spearheaded by King Baldwin II and Patriarch Warmund of Jerusalem. The Council of Nablus is particularly notable for the establishment of a set of laws known as the "Nablus Canons," which were among the earliest attempts to codify legal standards in the Crusader States. These canons addressed a wide range of issues, from religious practices to the handling of crimes and the rights of individuals, reflecting the complex social and political challenges faced by the fledgling kingdom. This council was a crucial step in the process of creating a structured legal framework within the Kingdom of Jerusalem, helping to lay the foundations for governance and order in a region characterized by a diverse and often turbulent landscape.

25th November
William Adelin, the only legitimate son of King Henry I of England, drowns in the White Ship Disaster
William Adelin

In a tragic turn of events that profoundly impacted English history, the only legitimate son of King Henry I of England, William Adelin, met his untimely death in the White Ship disaster. This calamity occurred in November 1120, when the White Ship, carrying William and many other nobles, struck a rock in the English Channel and sank. William Adelin's death was particularly significant as he was the heir to the English throne, and his untimely demise left King Henry I without a legitimate male successor. This catastrophe set the stage for a succession crisis that would engulf England after Henry's death, eventually leading to a period of civil war and instability known as The Anarchy.

12 August
The Battle of Didgori
A fresco of King David IV of Georgia from Gelati Monastery.

The Battle of Didgori, fought in August 1121, stands as one of the most decisive and celebrated military engagements in Georgian history. This historic battle was led by the legendary King David IV of Georgia, commonly known as David the Builder, against the vastly numerically superior Seljuk forces. The battle is often hailed as the "Miraculous Victory" due to the unexpected and overwhelming triumph of the Georgian army. David IV, employing a combination of military brilliance and strategic finesse, managed to lure the Seljuk troops into a narrow valley near Didgori, where the Georgians launched a surprise attack. The Georgian forces, known for their fierce combat skills and bolstered by their deep-seated determination to reclaim their lands, inflicted a crushing defeat on the Seljuk army. The victory at Didgori was pivotal, not only in securing Georgian independence from Seljuk Turkish dominion but also in establishing the stage for the Golden Age of Georgia, ushering in a period of cultural and political renaissance in the region.

23rd September
Concordat of Worms (Pactum Calixtinum)
The Concordat of Worms, written in Papal minuscule on Vellum

The Concordat of Worms, also known as Pactum Calixtinum, marked a significant turning point in medieval history, representing a resolution to the Investiture Controversy, a prolonged conflict between the Papacy and secular monarchs over the appointment of church officials. This agreement was formalized in September 1122 at Worms, Germany. Under the terms of the Concordat, a compromise was reached that allowed the Emperor to invest bishops with temporal authority symbolized by a ring and staff, but only after their election and spiritual investiture by the Church. This distinction between spiritual and temporal powers was a landmark in defining the relationship between the Church and the state. The Concordat of Worms is credited with delineating the boundaries of ecclesiastical and secular influence in Europe, setting a precedent for church-state relations in the ensuing centuries.

23rd September
King David the Builder captures Tbilisi and declares it the capital of Georgia
David IV with his court.

King David the Builder captured Tbilisi after a prolonged siege, marking a significant turn in the region's political and cultural landscape. This triumphant event, characterized by strategic military prowess and determination, led to King David declaring Tbilisi the capital city of Georgia. This declaration was not just a political move; it symbolized the unification and strengthening of the Georgian state under his rule. The choice of Tbilisi, a city with a rich history and strategic location, as the capital played a crucial role in the consolidation of Georgian power and culture. King David's reign and his choice of Tbilisi as the capital ushered in a golden age for Georgia, marked by significant advancements in art, architecture, and governance, leaving a lasting impact on the region's identity and heritage.

11th June
The Battle of Azaz
Battle of Azaz

The Battle of Azaz, a significant military engagement during the era of the Crusades, took place in the 12th century and marked a decisive victory for the Crusader states. Under the leadership of King Baldwin II of Jerusalem, the Crusader forces confronted the Seljuk Turks, a formidable power in the region. The battle was a critical moment in the ongoing struggle for control in the Middle East. King Baldwin II, demonstrating strategic acumen and martial prowess, successfully led his forces against the Seljuks, resulting in a notable triumph for the Crusader states. This victory not only bolstered the morale and standing of the Crusader states but also played a crucial role in shaping the geopolitical landscape of the region during this tumultuous period of history.

24th June
The Kingdom of Portugal gains independence from the Kingdom of León at the Battle of São Mamede
Shields of Portugal

The Kingdom of Portugal's journey towards independence marked a significant milestone at the Battle of São Mamede in 1128. This pivotal conflict saw Portuguese forces, led by Afonso Henriques, who would later become the first king of Portugal, assert their autonomy against the Kingdom of León. The battle fought near the town of Guimarães, was not just a military engagement but also a symbolic stand for self-determination and national identity. Afonso's victory at São Mamede was crucial to the establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal as a separate entity from the Kingdom of León, setting the stage for its formal recognition as an independent nation. This event is celebrated in Portuguese history as a defining moment in the birth of the nation, laying the foundation for its future as a sovereign state on the Iberian Peninsula.

Papal schism, Pope Innocent II vs. Antipope Anacletus II
Gregorio Papareschi

The Papal Schism of the 12th century, a significant event in the history of the Catholic Church, was marked by a fierce rivalry between Pope Innocent II and Antipope Anacletus II. This schism arose following the death of Pope Honorius II in 1130, leading to a divided conclave and the subsequent election of two popes: Innocent II, who was chosen by a minority of the cardinals, and Anacletus II, elected by the majority. Anacletus II, also known as Pietro Pierleoni, belonged to a powerful Roman family and enjoyed substantial support, particularly in Rome. In contrast, Innocent II, whose real name was Gregorio Papareschi, was forced to flee Rome and seek support elsewhere in Europe. This schism plunged the Church into a period of deep division and political intrigue, with various European monarchs and religious figures taking sides. The schism lasted until the death of Anacletus II in 1138, after which Innocent II was universally recognized as the legitimate pope, but the repercussions of this division were felt many years after.

25th December
Roger II is crowned King of Sicily
Detail of a mosaic showing Roger II (Rogerios Rex in Greek letters) receiving the crown from Jesus Christ (IC), Martorana, Palermo.

In a significant event in the 12th century, Roger II was crowned King of Sicily, marking a pivotal moment in the history of the Mediterranean region. This coronation, held under the auspices of Antipope Anacletus II, was a bold move that defied the conventional papal authority of the time. Anacletus II, who held the position of Antipope in opposition to the recognized Pope, bestowed the royal title upon Roger II, thereby legitimizing his rule over Sicily. This act not only elevated Roger II's status but also demonstrated the complex interplay of religious and political power during this era. The crowning of Roger II signified the rise of a new power in the Mediterranean and highlighted the influence and reach of the Papacy and its contenders in the geopolitical arena of medieval Europe.

The Second Crusade is launched in response to the fall of the County of Edessa
Illustration from a copy of the Passages d'outremer by Jean Colombe and Sébastien Mamerot depicting the Battle of Inab

The Second Crusade, a major chapter in the history of the Crusades, was initiated as a direct response to the fall of the County of Edessa. This event, occurring in the mid-12th century, marked a significant turning point, as Edessa was the first of the Crusader states established in the Near East, and its loss was a major blow to Christian forces. The fall of Edessa to the Muslims catalyzed Christian powers in Europe to embark on another ambitious military expedition to the Holy Land. Spearheaded by prominent figures such as King Louis VII of France and Emperor Conrad III of Germany, the Second Crusade aimed to recapture Edessa and reinforce the Christian presence in the region. This crusade, however, faced numerous challenges and setbacks, reflecting the complex dynamics and difficulties inherent in medieval warfare and diplomacy.

The Almohads takes North Africa from the Almoravides
Statue of Abd al Mumin in Tlemcen, Algeria

In a significant shift of power during the 12th century, the Almohads, under the leadership of Emir Abd al-Mu'min, successfully seized control of North Africa from the Almoravides. This marked a major turning point in the region's history, as the Almohads not only consolidated their rule over North Africa but also swiftly extended their influence beyond it by invading the Iberian Peninsula. This expansion was a clear display of their growing military strength and strategic acumen.

The Treaty of Wallingford
12th-century depiction of Matilda's eldest son Henry II and his wife Eleanor holding court

The civil war between Empress Matilda and her cousin, King Stephen of England, for the English crown, concludes with the Treaty of Wallingford. Under this agreement, Stephen recognizes Matilda's son, Henry of Anjou, as his successor to the throne.

27th December
Henry II is crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey
Henry II King of England

On December 27th, in a ceremony steeped in tradition and grandeur, Henry II ascended to the throne as the King of England, with his coronation taking place at the historic Westminster Abbey. This momentous event marked the beginning of a new era in English history, as Henry II was a ruler of immense ambition and capability. His crowning at the Abbey, a site of immense religious and political significance, symbolized not only the continuity of royal authority but also heralded the advent of a reign that would significantly shape the course of English and European history. Henry's coronation brought together the nobility, clergy, and citizens, showcasing the pomp and ceremony that characterized medieval kingship. His ascent to the throne was a pivotal moment that set the stage for a period of reform and consolidation in England, laying the foundations for a strong and centralized monarchy.

Genghis Khan, the founder of the Mongol Empire, is born as Temüjin in present-day Mongolia
Reproduction of a 1278 portrait taken from a Yuan-era album – National Palace Museum, Taipei

In the late 12th century, a figure destined to leave an indelible mark on world history was born in present-day Mongolia. He was named Temüjin, but he would later be known to the world as Genghis Khan, the founder of the Mongol Empire. Genghis Khan's birth marked the beginning of an extraordinary life that would see him rise from the harsh steppes of Mongolia to establish one of the largest empires the world has ever known. His extraordinary military and strategic acumen, combined with his ability to unite the Mongol tribes, set the stage for a series of conquests that would extend across Asia and into Europe, reshaping the geopolitical landscape of the era. His legacy is one of both awe and controversy, reflecting the complex nature of his rule and the enduring impact of his empire on world history.

29th December
Thomas Becket is murdered in Canterbury Cathedral
13th-century depiction of the death of Thomas Becket

In a dramatic and tragic turn of events that shook the foundations of 12th-century England, Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury, was brutally murdered inside Canterbury Cathedral. This shocking incident occurred as a result of escalating tensions between Becket and King Henry II over the rights and privileges of the church. Becket's steadfast defense of ecclesiastical autonomy had put him at odds with the King, leading to his eventual assassination by knights who believed they were acting on the King's wishes. The murder of Thomas Becket in the sacred confines of the cathedral on December 29, 1170, sent ripples throughout Christendom, transforming Becket into a martyr and a symbol of the struggle between secular and ecclesiastical powers.

The Treaty of Windsor
The main kingdoms in Gaelic Ireland.

The Treaty of Windsor, signed in the 12th century, marked a significant moment in the history of Anglo-Irish relations. This pivotal agreement was forged between King Henry II of England and Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, the High King of Ireland. Under this treaty, Ruaidrí was recognized as the ruler of a significant portion of Ireland, while Henry affirmed his control over the lands he had conquered. This arrangement established a framework for English involvement in Irish affairs, delineating spheres of influence and authority. The Treaty of Windsor not only signified a moment of relative peace and mutual recognition between the two rulers but also laid the groundwork for the complex political relationship between England and Ireland that would continue to evolve in the centuries to follow.

29th May
Battle of Legnano
Frederick Barbarossa in a miniature of 1188

The Battle of Legnano took place on May 29, 1176. This battle was a key moment in the struggle between the Holy Roman Empire and the Lombard League, a coalition of Italian city-states. Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa led his forces against the Lombard League, which was determined to resist his attempts to assert imperial authority over northern Italy. The battle fought near the town of Legnano, north of Milan, was notable for its intense combat and strategic significance. The Lombard League, equipped with a trained and dedicated militia known as the "Company of Death," successfully repelled the imperial forces. This victory was a major setback for Frederick Barbarossa and marked a turning point in the struggle for Italian autonomy. The Battle of Legnano not only symbolized the fierce resistance of the Italian city-states but also played a crucial role in shaping the balance of power in medieval Europe, highlighting the rising influence of urban centers and communal independence against feudal authority.

The Treaty of Peace of Venice
Fresco in Palazzo Pubblico, Siena depicting the submission of the emperor to the Pope

The Treaty or Peace of Venice, signed in the 12th century, marked a significant diplomatic achievement in medieval Europe. This crucial agreement involved the papacy and its allies, along with Frederick I, the Holy Roman Emperor. The negotiations also saw the participation of the Norman Kingdom of Sicily, reflecting the treaty's widespread political influence. This accord was instrumental in determining the political course of all of Italy for several years following its enactment.

4th July
The Battle of Hattin, Saladin defeats the king of Jerusalem
The Battle of Hattin, from a 13th-century manuscript of the Chronica Majora.

In 1187, a critical event in the history of the Crusades unfolded on July 4th with the Battle of Hattin. Saladin, the Muslim military leader and Sultan of Egypt and Syria faced off against the forces of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, led by their king. This battle was a decisive and pivotal confrontation. Saladin's strategic acumen and military prowess led to a crushing defeat of the Crusader forces, marking a significant turning point in the control of the Holy Land.

The Third Crusade is an attempt by European leaders to wrest the Holy Land from Saladin
Philip II depicted arriving in Palestine, 1332–1350

From 1189 to 1192, the Third Crusade unfolded as a significant chapter in the history of the Crusades, driven by the ambition of European leaders to recapture the Holy Land from the Muslim leader Saladin. This crusade was sparked by Saladin's successful capture of Jerusalem in 1187, a pivotal event that galvanized European monarchs into action. Prominent figures such as Richard the Lionheart of England, Philip II of France, and Frederick I Barbarossa of the Holy Roman Empire led this military campaign. The Third Crusade was marked by intense battles, strategic negotiations, and the display of both valor and diplomacy. Despite achieving several victories and capturing key cities like Acre, the Crusaders ultimately failed to reclaim Jerusalem. This period was significant not just for its military engagements but also for the cultural and religious interactions it fostered, deeply influencing the relationship between the Christian and Islamic worlds. The Third Crusade remains a symbol of the complex and often tragic interactions of faith, power, and politics during the medieval period.

Treaty of Ramla
Richard I of England, or Richard the Lionheart.

In 1192, a significant chapter in the history of the Crusades was written with the signing of the Treaty of Ramla in June. This landmark agreement was between Saladin, the Muslim sultan known for his leadership during the Crusader invasions, and Richard the Lionheart, the King of England and a prominent figure in the Third Crusade. The treaty's terms were groundbreaking: Jerusalem, a city of immense religious significance to both Christians and Muslims, would remain under Muslim control. However, in a gesture of compromise and tolerance, the city was to be open to Christian pilgrims. This aspect of the treaty was particularly notable as it symbolized a rare moment of conciliation in the otherwise tumultuous history of the Crusades. Additionally, the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, established by the Crusaders, was reduced to a narrow coastal strip extending from Tyre to Jaffa. This significant territorial reduction marked a shift in the balance of power in the region and represented a key moment in the protracted conflict between Christian and Muslim forces in the Holy Land.

Recommended Books

The Crusader Strategy Defending the Holy Land by Steve Tibble
The Crusader Strategy Defending the Holy Land by Steve Tibble
The Plantagenets: The Warrior Kings and Queens Who Made England
The Plantagenets: The Warrior Kings and Queens Who Made England
The White Ship Conquest, Anarchy and the Wrecking of Henry I’s Dream by Charles Spencer
The White Ship Conquest, Anarchy and the Wrecking of Henry I’s Dream by Charles Spencer
The First Crusade The Chronicle of Fulcher of Chartres and Other Source Materials
The First Crusade: The Chronicle of Fulcher of Chartres and Other Source Materials by Edward Peters


  • Wikipedia Contributors. (2023, December 17). 12th century. Wikipedia; Wikimedia Foundation.,Age’%20of%20the%20Cistercians%22.

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